A lunar terrarium would be a container containing plants and everything they need to survive on the Moon. No terrariums or greenhouses or permanent bases had been placed on the Moon until 2019. Before 2019, the only example of something close to a lunar terrarium would be the Apollo Lunar Module. The Apollo Lunar Module provided a habitat for astronauts, not for plants. Similarly, the Apollo spacesuits also provided a habitat for astronauts. During Apollo missions, experiments involving seeds or mice stayed in orbit similar to the seeds and tortois in Zond missions. However, an Apollo Lunar Module could provide the atmoshphere, water, and temperature that a plant needs in its environment to survive.
In 2019 the Chinese Chang'e 4 spacecraft landed on the far side of the Moon. The Chang'e 4 has a environmentally controlled sealed and insulated container with seeds and insect eggs to test whether plants and insects can live in lunar gravity. The climate controlled lunar biosphere experiment container includes potatoes, arabidopsis thaliana seeds, cotton, rapeseed, fruit fly pupa, and yeast. If the plant seeds germinate and start photosynthesis they will use carbon dioxide and release oxygen, while the fruit flies and yeast use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. After landing on January 3 2019, the containers temperature was adjusted to 24 degrees C and the seeds were watered. The China National Space Administration indicated that potato, cotton, and rapeseed had sprouted in the biosphere experiment, but only cotton sprout images were published. However, the biosphere experiment was not able to last over the cold lunar night, so it was ended after 9 days on January 12 2019.
While not on the Moon or in Lunar orbit, plant experiments have been conducted in Earth orbit. By being in Earth orbit, plants in these environments would have experienced weightlessness and not Lunar gravity and they would have been protected from radiation by the Van Allen radiation belt which wouldn't protect them on the Moon. Skylab was NASA's first space station, and it used an atmosphere of 74% oxygen and 26% nitrogen at 5 psi. Carbon dioxide would have been present from astronauts exhaling. A student proposed Skylab experiment involved the study of rice seeds that were planted and grown on the space station. It was the first time plants were studied in space in an experiment that lasted longer than three days. The rice took longer than usual to sprout, and then the stems sometimes grew away from the light. Skylab, like the Apollo Command Module and Apollo Lunar Module, was pressurized to only about 1/3 Earth atmosphere. This reduced the needed thickness of the walls of the pressure vessel. Note that alpine plants on Earth grow in atmospheric pressure as low as 1/2 that of sea level pressure. Salyut was the USSR's first series of space station, and they used an air like atmosphere at approximately sea-level pressures of 93.1 kPa (13.5psi) to 129 kPa (18.8 psi) with an oxygen content between 21% to 40%. Salyut-6 and Salyut-7 each included an Oazis 'orbital garden' experiment for plants to be grown on the space stations. Salyut-7 set a record by growing Arabidopsis plants which were the first to flower and produce seeds in space. Plant growth experiments have also been conducted on Mir Space Station, Space Shuttles, and on the International Space Station.
|Vessel||mission type||country of development||pressure (atm)||atmosphere||notes|
|Zond (aka Soyuz 7K-L1)||circumlunar trajectory||USSR||unknown, but probably 1 Atm||unknown, but probably O2 + N2||Lunar radiation environment, but not lunar gravity|
|Apollo||Lunar landing||USA||1/3 Atm||100% O2||Lunar radiation environment, Lunar gravity, but no plants, just humans|
|Skylab||low Earth orbit||USA||1/3 Atm||74% O2 + 26% N2|
|Salyut||low Earth orbit||USSR||1 Atm||21% O2 + 78% N2|
|Mir||low Earth orbit||USSR / Russia||1 Atm||21% O2 + 78% N2|
|Space Shuttle||low Earth orbit||USA||1 Atm||21% O2 + 78% N2|
|ISS||low Earth orbit||international||1 Atm||21% O2 + 78% N2|
|Chang'e 4||Lunar landing||China||unknown||unknown||Lunar radiation environment, Lunar gravity, plants sprouted, but not lunar regolith/soil|
The Apollo Lunar Module and Chang'e experiment, are all examples of above Lunar surface terrariums. Alternatively a lunar terrarium could be placed on the surface of the Moon or under the surface of the Moon. By placing a lunar terrarium on or below the surface of the Moon, lunar regolith might be able to be used for soil nutrients. Also, if there is frozen water or frozen carbon dioxide under the lunar surface, these approaches might be able to leverage it. Past lunar base proposals such as Project Horizon, Zvezda, and Lunex have focused on below surface structures.
Placing a lunar terrarium on or below the surface of the Moon would require an environment manipulator to dig into the lunar regolith. An environment manipulator is a tool or instrument designed to manipulate the environment outside of a spacecraft lander or rover on a celestial body. For the US Apollo program to the Moon the astronauts used a number or environment manipulators that they brought to the Moon in the Apollo Lunar Module. The Apollo Lunar Surface Drill was used to obtain a continuous regolith column up to 3 meters in length and to provide holes for the placement of heat flow probes. During the Apollo missions, the astronauts were surprised by the difficulty of extracting subsurface samples. While the top layer of the Moons surface was powdery and soft, attempts to drill into the surface and extract subsurface material resulted in seizing of drill tubes which could not be removed and had to be abandoned. They were ultimately successful and that's how data on temperature at depth of the lunar surface was obtained. However, this indicates that constructing a burried terrarium might require a large spacecraft, lander, and rover in order to dig a hole more than a meter below the surface.
Photo taken by the Yutu-2 rover on Jan 11, 2019 shows the Chang'e-4 lander. [Photo/Xinhua/China National Space Administration] (carried life to the Moon: plant seeds)
For a terrarium to provide the carbon dioxide needed by plants, it could be transported to the Moon from Earth as an atmosphere mix or as pure dry ice. The mass of Earth atmosphere needed to fill a 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cube would only be about 1.22 grams. Alternately, it is hypothesised that carbon could be extracted by heating the Lunar soil, causing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other carbon based molecules to form. There is a threshold of how much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere plants can or will use. Ambient level of carbon dioxide hover around 400 ppm in Earth atmosphere. If the level of carbon dioxide is increased to around 1,000-1,500 ppm, plants will be healthier. However, if the level rises to 2,000 ppm or higher, plants will experience negative effects such as carbon dioxide burn. Thus, some other substance such as nitrogen or oxygen must be present in the terrariums atmosphere. Also, during photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is consumed and replace by oxygen, so the terrarium would need to replace the carbon dioxide as the plant uses it. For this reason, a local source of carbon dioxide would be preferable. For a terrarium to provide the water needed by plants, it could be transported to the Moon from Earth as ice. As another option, the small amounts of water believed to exist closer to the Lunar poles could be leveraged. Again, during photosynthesis, water is consumed, so the terrarium would need to replace the water as the plant uses it. For this reason, a local source of water would be preferable.
Not only do plants require a certain temperature range to grow, most machinery and electronics need to stay within a temperature range or they will break down. For example, the Apollo Lunar Rover's signal processing unit could only survive between -50 C (-65 F) and 85 C (185 F). With days and nights that last about 14 Earth days each and no atmosphere to distribute heat, the Moon goes from very hot to very cold. This is differnt than for Earth orbiting space stations which go from about 45 minutes of sunlight to 45 minutes of shadow every orbit. Temperatures on the Moon vary from approximately -170 C (-275 F) at night to around 140 C (280 F) in the day. As a gauge of that range, while the lunar high temperatures can be simulated with a kitchen stove, the lunar low temperatures are significantly lower than you can get with a kitchen freezer. Past lunar base proposals such as Project Horizon, Zvezda, and Lunex that focused on below surface structures planned to take advantage of the characteristic that beyond a meter below the Lunar surface the temperature doesn't rise or fall as extremely. Also, anything blocking sunlight from hitting a surface will allow that item to radiate heat rather than absorb heat. The Apollo Lunar Module was only used during Lunar daytime and used insulation to prevent it from getting to hot. The Chang'e 4 biological payload was able to regulate its temperature during the day, but it was terminated at the first lunar nightfall. It's unclear if the Chang'e 4 biological payload had a means designed into it to keep the environment warm over Lunar night. Just like how an electric battery stores electricity, a thermal battery is used to store and release thermal energy. It might be possible to use thermal batteries to store heat during the Lunar day and then keep things warm during the Lunar night. The Apollo Lunar Rover had wax tanks that were used to store excess heat generated by electronics. As the electronics generated heat, it melted the wax, which stayed at a relatively constant temperature until it was all melted. Water and concrete are other examples of substances that can be used to store and release heat.
|Plant Experiment System||Spacecraft||first date operated||growth area m^2||nutrient delivery system||illumination system||atmosphere management system||location|
|Zond 5, 6, 7, 8||1968/9/15||trans-lunar|
|Moon Trees (seeds)||Apollo 14||1971/1/31||0||lunar orbit|
|Oasis 1||Salyut 1||1971||0.001||Two compartment NDS (Water and ion exchange resin)||Fluorescent lamps, 50-68 μmol/(m² s)||LEO|
|Plant Growth/Plant Phototropism||Skylab||1973/07/28||LEO|
|Vazon||Soyuz 12, Salyut 6, 7, Mir||1973||Cloth sack filled with ion exchange resin||Cabin light||Cabin air||LEO|
|Oasis 1M||Salyut 4||1974||0.010||Fibrous ion exchange medium||Fluorescent lamps, 50-68 μmol/(m² s)||LEO|
|Malachite||Salyut 6||1973 ?||Ion exchange resin, water supply||Separate lighting system||LEO|
|Oasis 1AM||Salyut 6||1977||0.010||Cloth ion exchange medium||LEO|
|Oasis 1A||Salyut 7||1982||0.010||Included root zone aeration system||170-350 μmol/(m² s)||Ventilation||LEO|
|Svetoblok||Salyut 7||1982||Agar based NDS, later also other media||Cabin light, later fluorescent lamps||Sterile environment||LEO|
|Phyton||Salyut 7||1982||1.5 % agar nutrient medium||Separate lighting system||Ventilation incl. Bacterial filters||LEO|
|SVET||Mir||1990||0.100||Zeolite based Balkanin substrate||12x fluorescent lamps||Ventilation||LEO|
|SVET-GEMS||Mir||1995||0.100||Zeolite based ion exchange medium, root zone moisture controllable||Fluorescent lamps, 300 μmol/(m² s)||Controlled environment, photosynthesis and transpiration measurements||LEO|
|Plant Growth Unit (PGU)||STS||1982||0.050||Various NDS used||3x 15 W fluorescent lamps, 50-75 μmol/(m² s)||Optional active air exchange system||LEO|
|Astroculture (ASC)||STS||1992||0.021||Porous tubes with matrix||LED (RB); 300 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas contro||LEO|
|Plant Growth Bioprocessing Apparatus (PGBA)||STS||1996||0.075||Agar or aggregate that provide nutrients||Fluorescent lamps: >350 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas control, photosynthesis and transpiration measurements||LEO|
|Plant Growth Facility (PGF)||STS||1997||0.055||Saturated foam or agar||Fluorescent lamps, > 220 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2and temperature control; ethylene filter||LEO|
|Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC)||ISS||2001||0.052||Porous tube-based NDS||LED (RB); 410 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas control||LEO|
|Biomass Production System (BPS)||ISS||2002||0.104||Particulate matrix with porous tubes||Fluorescent lamps, 350 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas control, photosynthesis and transpiration measurements||LEO|
|Lada greenhouse||ISS||2002||0.050||Similar to SVET||Fluorescent lamps; 250 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas control||LEO|
|European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)||ISS||2006||0.077||Customizable||LED (RW)||Gas supply unit, pressure control unit, ethylene removal unit||LEO|
|Plant Experiment Units (PEU)||ISS||2009||0.027||Rock wool||LED (RB): 110 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity and temperature control||LEO|
|Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS)||ISS||2009||0.053||Customizable||LED (RGBW): 300 μmol/(m² s)||Humidity, CO2, temperature and trace gas control||LEO|
|Vegetable Production System (VEGGIE)||ISS||2014||0.170||Passive NDS, rooting pillows, manual water and nutrient supply||LED (RGB), >300 μmol/(m² s)||none; cabin AMS||LEO|
|Lunar Micro Ecosystem||Chang'e 4||2019/1/3||lunar surface|
Most of this data is from "Review and analysis of plant growth chambers and greenhouse modules for space"
Paul Zabel, Matthew Bamsey and Daniel Schubert German Aerospace Center (DLR), 28359 Bremen, Germany and Martin Tajmar Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany
China's Chang'e program took plant seeds to the Moon's surface in an environmentally controlled sealed and insulated container. On the other hand, the Apollo Lunar Module included a hatch that allowed astronauts to gather materials from the Lunar surface and bring them inside the craft. The Lunar Module hatch opened inward, and the atmospheric pressure inside the Lunar Module pushed the hatch closed and forced the hatch to seal. Thus, the Lunar Module hatch could not be opened while the craft was pressurized. Thus, the Lunar Module had to be depressurized before the hatch could be opened. There was a dump valve in the hatch that vented the craft atmosphere to space allowing it to be depressurized. Once the hatch was closed again, the craft had to be repressurized from stored oxygen tanks.
This hatch along with the gathering of Lunar materials was done manually by the astronauts, but someone could design a system to automate bringing local in situ Lunar resources into a pressure vessel to setup a terrarium. It's also possible that if the resources brought into the pressure vessel included dry ice (frozen CO2), if heated, could pressurize the pressure vessel.
For students who want to experiment with a working terrarium, you can build one right here on Earth although you won't have as many issues to deal with as you would on the Moon. Before building anything it's a good idea to know what you're trying to accomplish. For example, if you want to build a terrarium that would ultimately work on the Moon, are you building it to be completely sealed, or do you want it to take advantage of local soil nutrients, or potentially local frozen water or carbon dioxide sources, or using local material as a radiation shield? That will tell you something about what mechanics you might need in order to take advantage of local resources on the Moon.
The job of a terrarium is to allow plants exported from one place to grow in another location even though the environment might be different or even hostile to the plants.
If you want to build your own automated terrarium, you might need to start from scratch.
For a terrarium you will need:
You will also probably want to have some environment sensors and environment manipulators. Useful environment sensors for a terrarium would give an indication of available water (H20) like a humidity sensor, available carbon dioxide (CO2) like a CO2 sensor, an atmospheric pressure sensor, a light sensor, and a temperature sensor.
Some retailers for electronics and other parts are:
By knowing the state of these characteristics, you or an automated terrarium could take action to adjust them if they were out of the range that would support plant life. Instead of building your own environment sensor system from scratch, you could use environment sensors built into many Android smartphones. To measure the environment of your terrarium, download the Android Telemetry app to an Android smartphone that is equipped with appropriate environment sensors.Link to Telemetry for Android smartphones
Run Telemetry and tap the Refresh button to display your smartphones environment sensor values.
For a sealed terrarium,
before sealing your terrarium, you should have an estimate of how large your plant will be able to grow.
The size a plant with grow depends on the water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2) available in the environment.
The light available also affects plant growth.
The overall chemical equation for the photosynthesis that occurs in plants is:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
The product from photosynthesis is sugar (C6H12O6). A waste product from photosynthesis is oxygen (O2). To estimate the size a plant might grow in a sealed terrarium, download the Android ChemCalc app to your Android smartphone.
Run ChemCalc and select the ChemCalc menu item.
Calculate the molar mass for each of water, carbon dioxide, and sugar.
For example to get the molar mass of water:
you can tap on:
( H * 2 ) + O =
Or to get the molar mass of carbon dioxide:
you can tap on:
C + ( O * 2 ) =
By knowing the ratios of the molar masses, and knowing the mass of the water and carbon dioxide available in the terrarium, you can estimate the mass that the plant could grow to since plants are primarily composed of sugar based molecules.
Here are some exaples of autonomous terrariums built from various parts.
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